This international project represents a convergence of a substantial fraction of the worldwide neutrino physics community, provided by the large investment by the Department of Energy (DOE). The primary scientific objectives of DUNE are to carry out a comprehensive investigation of neutrino oscillations to test charge and parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector, determine the ordering of the neutrino masses, and to test the three-neutrino paradigm (electron, muon and tau neutrino).
The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment and Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (DUNE-LBNF) have been under development at Fermilab since early 2010s. Independent measurements of the propagation of neutrinos and antineutrinos through matter will make it possible to observe neutrino transitions with the precision required to determine the CP-violating phase and the neutrino mass hierarchy. The LBNF will provide a 120-GeV proton beam on a neutrino production target utilizing a new 800-MeV superconducting linear accelerator which is expected to be completed in 2027 within Proton Improvement Plan-II project (PIP-II).
Many of the LBNF project milestones will heavily rely on computer simulations using the MARS15 computer code. The neutrino beamline, which utilizes a target and beam focusing horn systems, decay pipe, hadron absorber and other systems, is a core component of the LBNF. Such simulation studies are done by means of precise Monte Carlo modeling of radiation transport and interactions with matter in a broad energy region, utilizing the power and capabilities of the Fermilab’s MARS15 computer code. Also, a detailed MARS model of the PIP-II facility—both accelerator beamline itself and infrastructure—have been developed. These resources are required for comprehensive Monte Carlo studies of radiation shielding, including both normal operation and accident scenarios. The model will be verified, and test simulations will be performed as a pre-requisite before performing numerous production simulations. This research will focus on significant further optimization and follow-up work which is required to address many components and issues such as current budget constraints. The performed sumulations will leverage the substantial supercomputer resources which are essential to the success of the project.